To create AGS-003, specialized white blood cells called monocytes are separated from each patient’s blood sample and developed into mature dendritic cells. The small tumor sample taken from the standard surgery (nephrectomy) is used to program the dendritic cells with the signals (antigens) necessary to create a specific and personal immune response against the cancer cells. These “programmed” dendritic cells are then formulated into a fully personalized therapy that can be simply injected under the skin, in order to help educate each patient’s immune system to recognize and destroy their own cancer cells. Once AGS-003 is injected under the skin, the therapy can then work to show the immune system how to recognize and kill cancer cells.